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Situs inversus and cystic kidney disease: Two adult patients with this Heterogeneous syndrome

Tamehito Onoe, Tadashi Konoshita, Koichi Tsuneyama, Ryoko Hamano, Ichiro Mizushima, Yasushi Kakuchi, Kazunori Yamada, Kenshi Hayashi, Masahiro Kuroda, Satoshi Kagitani, Hideki Nomura, Masakazu Yamagishi, Mitsuhiro Kawano

Am J Case Rep 2013; 14:20-25

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.883751


Background: Situs inversus is a rare complication of cystic kidney diseases. Only three genes, INVS (NPHP2), NPHP3 and PKD2 have been proved to be responsible for some cases, while the responsible genes in many others are still unknown.
Case Reports: Here we report two male patients with situs inversus combined with cystic kidney disease without any family history of polycystic kidney disease. Their renal function was normal in childhood but culminated in end stage renal disease in middle age. No pathogenic mutations were found in mutation analysis of INVS, IFT88, PKD2, UMOD or NPHP3 in them.
Conclusions: Past reported cases of situs inversus and cystic kidney diseases were divided into three groups, i.e., gestational lethal renal dysplasia group, infantile or juvenile nephronophthisis group and polycystic kidney disease group. The present patients are different from each of these groups. Moreover, the renal lesions of the present two cases are quite different from each other, with one showing mildly atrophic kidneys with small numbers of cysts and the other an enlarged polycystic kidney disease, suggesting very heterogeneous entities.

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