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Gingival Fibromatosis with Significant De Novo Formation of Fibrotic Tissue and a High Rate of Recurrence

Katarzyna Gawron, Katarzyna Łazarz-Bartyzel, Andrzej Fertala, Paweł Plakwicz, Jan Potempa, Maria Chomyszyn-Gajewska

(Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland)

Am J Case Rep 2016; 17:655-659

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.899997

BACKGROUND: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is characterized by slowly progressive enlargement of the gingiva that can present as an isolated condition or present as part of various syndromes.
CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old female reported with a gingival lesion that caused masticatory problems and poor oral hygiene. Periodontal examination revealed a dense tissue covering 30% of her teeth crowns within both jaws. Panoramic x-ray showed a normal bone height and teeth positioning. The patient did not use any medications, but a similar condition was also present in other family members. The patient was diagnosed with hereditary gingival fibromatosis. Surgery was carried out to remove excess of gingival tissue. Post-surgical healing was uneventful, but four weeks after the first surgery, the condition recurred amounting to 45% of the initial tissue volume presenting in the mandible, and 25% in the maxilla. Two months later, no significant growth was noted in the mandible, while in the maxilla, growth increased to 40% of the preoperative state. Analysis by polarized microscope showed a significant increase of thin fibrotic fibrils that contributed 80% of the total pool of collagen fibrils in the patient’s gingiva, but only 25% in healthy gingiva. The patient was receiving outpatient care for follow-up every three months and surgical intervention had not been planned as long as her periodontal health was not be compromised. 
CONCLUSIONS: It is currently not clear whether the extent of the fibrosis had a mechanistic association with the ratio of gingival tissue re-growth in our case study. Further studies are needed to explain this association and improve the management of this condition.

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