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28 May 2014 : Case report  USA

Interferon-alpha-induced sarcoidosis in a patient being treated for hepatitis C

Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Rare disease, Adverse events of drug therapy, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Remi TrienABCDEF, Chad J. CooperABCDEF, David PaezCDE, Edgardo ColonDEF, Shajeea AjmalDEF, Hasan SalamehABCDEF

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.890180

Am J Case Rep 2014; 15:235-238

Abstract

BACKGROUND: IFN-alpha-2b in combination with ribavirin is now the standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C. Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. The pathologic hallmark of sarcoidosis is the presence of noncaseating granulomas in the interstitium that typically involve the lymphatics.

CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old woman presented to our care with 2-week history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, shortness of breath, migraine headache, maculopapular rash, generalized weakness, and lightheadedness. She had been treated for hepatitis C with telaprevir, ribavirin, and interferon-alpha-2b for 6 months. Chest radiograph showed bilateral diffuse prominence of bronchovascular markings. CT of the chest revealed bilateral diffuse centrilobular nodules with associated intralobular septal thickening, thickening of the central peribronchovascular interstitium, nodularity of the major fissures, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. These findings were suspicious for atypical pulmonary sarcoidosis, possibly interferon-induced. The pathology of the mediastinal lymph node biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomatous inflammation consistent with the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pathology of the skin punch biopsy showed giant-cell granulomatous inflammation without necrosis. The patient was started on prednisone 40 mg daily with a steroid tapering course for 8 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS: The management of IFN-induced sarcoidosis includes the discontinuation of IFN therapy with or without the administration of systemic corticosteroids. With the increasing prevalence of HCV in the United States, it is likely that more IFN-alpha-induced sarcoidosis will be encountered by clinicians.

Keywords: Hepatitis C, Interferons - adverse effects, Sarcoidosis - chemically induced

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923