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10 March 2017 : Case report  USA

Late-Onset Cerebral Toxoplasmosis After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Ahmed M. Khalaf1ABDEF*, Mahmoud A. Hashim23ABDEF, Mohammed Alsharabati4BD, Kenneth Fallon5BD, Joel K. Cure6BD, Peter Pappas7BD, Shin Mineishi8D, Ayman Saad9ABDEG

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.899687

Am J Case Rep 2017; 18:246-250

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Post-transplant toxoplasmosis is often a reactivation of prior infection and typically occurs within the first 6 months of transplant. Herein, we report that cerebral toxoplasmosis may occur 22 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

CASE REPORT: We describe a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis that occurred 22 months after an allogeneic HCT while the patient was on aerosolized pentamidine for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis. The disease was only diagnosed after brain biopsy because of atypical MRI appearance of the cerebral lesion and negative Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody test result in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient received pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine treatment, with dramatic improvement after several months. The patient is alive 2 years after infection diagnosis, with no evidence of disease and is off Toxoplasma prophylaxis.

CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral toxoplasmosis can occur late after allogeneic HCT while patients are on immunosuppression therapy, with atypical features on imaging studies and negative Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody test result in the CSF. Pre-transplant serologic screening for T. gondii antibodies in allogeneic transplant candidates is warranted. Brain biopsy can be a helpful diagnostic tool for cerebral lesions.

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral, case reports, Brain Biopsy, Late Reactivation, prophylaxis, Toxoplasma gondii

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923