28 March 2017 : Case report
An Uncommon Case of Lower Limb Deep Vein Thrombosis with Multiple Etiological Causes
Unknown etiology, Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare diseaseJing Miao1ABDEF*, Geetha Naik1BDE, Sivakumar Muddana1BD, Xiaohuan Li1BD, Supriya Bhimasani1BD, Ronald Alvin Mitchell1BD, Dariush Alaie1ADE, Richard L. Petrillo1ADE
Am J Case Rep 2017; 18:313-316
BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a type of venous thromboembolism with diverse clinical and environmental risk factors. Very few cases of DVT with multiple high risk factors have been reported. Here, we report an uncommon DVT case with multiple etiological causes, including appendicitis/appendectomy, morbid obesity, immobilization, positive phosphatidylserine IgG, and heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation.
CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old female was brought to the emergency room because of 2-week history of pain and swelling and ultrasound revealing evidence of DVT in the right leg. One month ago, she underwent an exploratory laparotomy because of subacute appendicitis. After surgery, the patient stayed at home in bed with very limited activity. She did not have a cough, hemoptysis, chest pain, or shortness of breath. She was morbidly obese, and had a past medical history of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. A full coagulation workup was completed, including Protein C, Protein S, and antiphospholipid antibody, as well as factor V and prothrombin gene mutation screen. Her D-dimer was positive. Computed tomography (CT) angiography of the lungs ruled out major emboli but was unable to rule out minor emboli. A heterozygous factor V Leiden R506Q mutation was detected. Of interest was a significantly positive phosphatidylserine IgG with a value of over 42. She was started with enoxaparin (120 mg, twice a day), and warfarin was added on day 2 when pulmonary embolism was ruled out by CT angiography. The International Normalized Ratio (INR) was monitored daily to adjust warfarin dose.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple etiological factors present in this patient may have contributed to her lower-limb DVT, including appendicitis/appendectomy, morbid obesity, immobilization, positive phosphatidylserine IgG, and factor V Leiden mutation. Therefore, it is important to follow the complete workup for hypercoagulable states. This can help with diagnosis and therapy, and also give insight into the pathogenicity, which can help with prevention of recurrence and severe complications of DVT.
Keywords: Factor V, Immobilization, Obesity, Phosphatidylserines, Venous Thrombosis
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