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14 March 2018 : Case report  Japan

A Case of Low-Grade Primary Cardiac Lymphoma with Pericardial Effusion Diagnosed by Combined 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) Imaging and Effusion Cytology

Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare disease

Hisanori Fukunaga12BDEF, Yasuko Tatewaki1BDEF, Tatsushi Mutoh1DEFG*, Hideo Shimomura1BDE, Shuzo Yamamoto34E, Chiaki Terao1D, Tomoko Totsune1D, Manabu Nakagawa1DE, Yasuyuki Taki1DEF

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.908385

Am J Case Rep 2018; 19:292-295

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Primary cardiac lymphoma is rare and can be an aggressive disease, depending on the grade. A case is reported of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma associated with a pericardial effusion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging was useful in the diagnosis and in evaluating the disease activity in this case.

CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old Japanese woman visited a general practitioner, complaining of dyspnea associated with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and Group V malignant cells were identified by cytology, suspicious for malignant lymphoma. Whole-body FDG-PET/CT scans showed no pleural effusion or lymph node metastasis supporting the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma diagnosed on pericardial effusion. The laboratory investigations showed that levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (sIL-2R), a diagnostic and prognostic marker for malignant lymphoma, were not elevated (258 U/ml). A six-month follow-up FDG-PET/CT scan showed an increased volume of the pericardial effusion and mild but abnormal uptake diffusely in the pericardial space, and the sIL-2R was slightly elevated (860 U/ml). No abnormal FDG accumulation outside the retained pericardial effusion was noted, which was compatible with a clinical picture of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma, and in a period of watchful waiting during the first two years later, the sIL-2R had reduced to 195 U/ml.

CONCLUSIONS: This is a rare case of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma detected in a pericardial effusion, and highlights the utility of the FDG-PET/CT scan as a valuable diagnostic and follow-up modality.

Keywords: Adenolymphoma, Fluorodeoxyglucose F18, Heart Neoplasms, Positron-Emission Tomography

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923