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17 September 2018 : Case report  Cyprus

Central Nervous System Bleeding After a Lumbar Puncture: Still an Ongoing Complication

Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents

Christer Sawaya12DEF, Raja Sawaya3ABE*

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.910912

Am J Case Rep 2018; 19:1103-1107

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A lumbar puncture is a procedure performed to uncover the state of the central nervous system by analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid. It is done also to infuse medications in the subdural space. A lumbar puncture should not cause central nervous system bleeding, but this complication is still occurring in certain cases.

CASE REPORT: We present 2 cases where a lumbar puncture was performed in the emergency department. The first patient had severe inflammatory lower back pain and received epidural steroids through a lumbar puncture and the second case presented with the clinical picture of meningitis and a lumbar puncture was performed for diagnostic purposes. In both cases, major complications arose secondary to bleeding in the cerebrospinal fluid. The first case developed a bleeding tendency because the patient had acute renal failure and was on low molecular weight heparin. The second case had low platelet count because of myelodysplasia. Both cases bled into the subarachnoid space and subdural space resulting in compression of the cauda equine and paralysis. The bleeding eventually flowed into the posterior fossa resulting in vasospasm of the posterior circulation and infarction of the posterior cerebral arteries.

CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that both patients sustained complications from the lumbar puncture because of a bleeding tendency secondary to systemic illnesses and multiple drugs and their side effects. We recommend that patients’ medical condition be well evaluated, and proper blood studies be performed prior to lumbar punctures to avoid major morbidities.

Keywords: Guideline Adherence, Hematologic Diseases, Morbidity, Spinal Puncture, Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923