Logo American Journal of Case Reports

Call: 1.631.629.4328
Mon-Fri 10 am - 2 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo American Journal of Case Reports Logo American Journal of Case Reports Logo American Journal of Case Reports

27 February 2019 : Case report  USA

Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction Due to Hyponatremia Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

Unusual clinical course, Mistake in diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Chompunut Asavaaree1ABCDEFG, Jenny Mao2ABCDEFG, Amanpreet Kaur2ABCDEFG, Saksith Smithason3ABCDEFG*

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.913872

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:258-262


BACKGROUND: Development of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion or cerebral salt wasting has been commonly noted in post-traumatic brain injury, and this condition may lead to hyponatremia resulting in cerebral edema and possible cerebral herniation. However, the predominant topographic pattern of edema from hyponatremia has not been well documented. Unlike numerous reports on hyponatremia and vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, the data for traumatic brain injury patient are still limited. We report on a rare patient with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction as a result of hyponatremia following traumatic brain injury.

CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old Native American male with significant past medical history of alcoholism, hypertension, and hemorrhagic stroke presented to the emergency department by emergency medical service after he was struck by a vehicle in a hit-and-run incident. The patient sustained multiple abrasions, and he had elevated alcohol levels. His initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) was 14 with a confused conversation (V4). Computer tomography (CT) of the head showed 5 mm thickness acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage of right frontal, temporal, and parietal areas, with 3 mm midline shift at the level of foramen of Monro. Traumatic brain injury conservative treatment was initiated as well as alcoholic withdrawal protocols in the intensive care unit. Patient initially improved neurologically despite low sodium levels. He recouped to fully conscious, with a GCS score of 15, at 24 hours after admission. On day 9, he was found unresponsive with a head CT showed malignant right middle cerebral artery infarction, resulted in 15 mm subfalcine herniation. The patient passed away 48 hours later, as patient’s family declined further intervention.

CONCLUSIONS: The management and prevention of post-traumatic vasospasm may be complicated even in asymptomatic and neurologically intact patients. Close neurological monitoring and prevention protocols are important in activating appropriate management.

Keywords: Brain Injuries, Hyponatremia, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic, Vasospasm, Intracranial, Brain Injuries, Traumatic, Fatal Outcome, Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery, Middle Aged



29 June 2022 : Case report  USA

A Clinical Case of COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936896  

16 June 2022 : Case report  Ecuador

Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Patient with SARS-Cov-2 Pneumonia in an Intensive Care Unit ...

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936498  

13 June 2022 : Case report  Japan

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection Associated with COVID-19: A Case Series and Literature Review

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936889  

13 June 2022 : Case report  Saudi Arabia

Atlantoaxial Subluxation Secondary to SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Rare Orthopedic Complication from COVID-19

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936128  

In Press

30 Jun 2022 : Case report  China (mainland)

Septic Shock Induced by Acute Pyelonephritis Resulting from Kidney Stones Treated by Double-J Ureteral Sten...

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936967  

30 Jun 2022 : Case report  USA

A Clinical Case of COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936896  

29 Jun 2022 : Case report  Kuwait

A Challenging Case of Jejunal Dieulafoy’s Lesion: A Rare Cause of Refractory Lower-Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936313  

29 Jun 2022 : Case report  USA

A Rare Case of Synchronous Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm-Associated Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma and...

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.935242  

Most Viewed Current Articles

23 Feb 2022 : Case report  USA

Penile Necrosis Associated with Local Intravenous Injection of Cocaine

DOI :10.12659/AJCR.935250

Am J Case Rep 2022; 23:e935250

17 Feb 2022 : Case report  Oman

Myocarditis, Pulmonary Hemorrhage, and Extensive Myositis with Rhabdomyolysis 12 Days After First Dose of P...

DOI :10.12659/AJCR.934399

Am J Case Rep 2022; 23:e934399

06 Dec 2021 : Case report  Brazil

Lipedema Can Be Treated Non-Surgically: A Report of 5 Cases

DOI :10.12659/AJCR.934406

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e934406

09 Feb 2022 : Case report  Saudi Arabia

Extensive Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST) After the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA COV...

DOI :10.12659/AJCR.934744

Am J Case Rep 2022; 23:e934744

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923