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17 October 2019 : Case report  USA

Spontaneous Fungal Peritonitis as a Rare Complication of Ascites Secondary to Cardiac Cirrhosis: A Case Report

Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare disease

Dharti Patel1ABDEF, Arshad Muhammad Iqbal1ABCDEF*, Ateeq Mubarik1DEF, Fahad Zafar1EF, Salaah M. Siddiqui1E, Aamani Jupalli1F, Nikolay P. Mitzov1AEF, Salman Muddassir1ADF

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.917757

Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:1526-1529

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a life-threatening infection which occurs more commonly in patients with liver failure. SFP is not as common as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and has higher mortality rates due to late recognition and difficulty in differentiation between SFP and SBP. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is extremely uncommon in patients with cardiac ascites due to a high protein content, which predisposes to a low risk of infections.

CASE REPORT: This report presents a rare case of spontaneous fungal peritonitis in a patient with cardiogenic ascites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second known case of SFP occurring in a patient with cardiac cirrhosis. The patient did not respond to initiation of SBP treatment and after ascitic fluid grew Candida glabrata, the diagnosis of SFP was made. The patient’s clinical status improved after initiation of intravenous caspofungin.

CONCLUSIONS: SFP should be a differential diagnosis in patients who have cardiac or liver cirrhosis, who are not improving with empirical antibiotic therapy for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Keywords: Ascites, Candida glabrata, peritonitis, Antifungal Agents, caspofungin, Diagnosis, Differential, Fibrosis, Middle Aged, Mycoses, Myocardium, Time Factors

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923