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09 March 2020 : Case report  Qatar

Composite Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Small Cell Variant: A Real Diagnostic Challenge. Case Presentation and Review of Literature

Challenging differential diagnosis, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis), Rare coexistence of disease or pathology

Feryal Ibrahim1ACDEF, Ahmad Al Sabbagh1F, Aliaa Amer2BDEF, Dina S. Soliman13CEF*, Hesham Al Sabah4AE

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.921131

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e921131


BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) both have a common origin arising from mature CD5+ B-lymphocytes. Their distinction is crucial since MCL is a considerably more aggressive disease. Composite lymphoma consisting of CLL/SLL and MCL has been rarely reported. This type of composite lymphoma may be under-diagnosed as the 2 neoplasms have many features in common, both morphologically and immunophenotypically.

CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented with a 4-month history of recurrent abdominal pain and distention with hepatosplenomegaly. Peripheral blood showed a high leukocytes count (46.7×10³/uL) with marked lymphocytosis of 35.0×10³/uL, mostly small mature-looking, with some showing nuclear irregularities, with approximately 3% prolymphocytes. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry revealed 2 immunophenotypically distinct abnormal CD5+monotypic B-cell populations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on peripheral blood demonstrated IGH/CCND1 rearrangement consistent with t(11;14) in 65% of cells analyzed. Accordingly, based on compilation of findings from morphology, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and FISH, A diagnosis of composite lymphoma consisting of MCL; small cell variant and CLL/SLL was concluded.

CONCLUSIONS: We describe a case of composite lymphoma of MCL (small cell variant) and CLL/SLL that emphasizes the crucial role of the multiparametric approach, including vigilant cyto-histopathologic examination, immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, as well as genetic testing, to achieve the correct diagnosis.

Keywords: Composite Lymphoma, Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell, Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell, Biomarkers, Tumor, Diagnosis, Differential, Flow Cytometry, Gene Rearrangement, Immunohistochemistry, Immunophenotyping, In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence, Oncogene Proteins, Fusion

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923