Logo American Journal of Case Reports

Call: 1.631.629.4328
Mon-Fri 10 am - 2 pm EST

Contact Us

Logo American Journal of Case Reports Logo American Journal of Case Reports Logo American Journal of Case Reports

04 June 2022 : Case report  Japan

[In Press] Clinical Presentation of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1-Associated Pneumonia and Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review

Challenging differential diagnosis, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Management of emergency care, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Kazuhiro Ishikawa1ABCDEF, Tomoaki Nakamura ORCID logo2CDF, Takahiro Matsuo1AD, Fujimi Kawai ORCID logo3F, Hinako Murakami4B, Kotaro Aoki5B, Tatsuya Nagasawa5B, Yuki Uehara1678DE, Nobuyoshi Mori1ABCDEF

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936309

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936309  

Available online: 2022-06-04, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule


We report a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 and review the existing literature to identify risk factors and determine the prognosis of patients with Legionella pneumonia-associated DAH.
A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital following the presentation of dyspnea for a few days. Chest computed tomography (CT) findings revealed “crazy-paving” pattern in the right upper lobe implicating DAH and consolidation in the lower lobe. Analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid revealed DAH, with further analyses identifying L. pneumophila SG 1 as the causative agent. The patient was successfully treated with levofloxacin and a red blood cell transfusion and discharged on the 32nd day of hospitalization. A literature review of 6 reported cases (including our case) of Legionella pneumonia-associated DAH revealed that the median age of patients with DAH was 59 years (range, 44-75 years), involving female patients in 4 cases (67%) and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in 2 cases (33%). Three cases were BAL Legionella polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive and 4 cases were diagnosed using a urinary Legionella antigen test (one case was simultaneously PCR-positive). These infections were caused by L. pneumophila SG 1 in three cases and SG 3 in one case. Mechanical ventilation was used in 5 cases (83%) and one patient had an unfavorable prognosis. Steroids for DAH were used in 5 cases (83%), and 2 cases responded to this treatment.
Our case highlights that clinicians should be aware of Legionella spp. as a cause of DAH in an immunocompetent host with “crazy-paving” pattern on chest CT, and perform a urinary antigen test and BAL PCR for diagnosis.

Keywords: Legionella pneumophila


16 June 2022 : Case report  Ecuador

Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Patient with SARS-Cov-2 Pneumonia in an Intensive Care Unit ...

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936498  

13 June 2022 : Case report  Japan

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection Associated with COVID-19: A Case Series and Literature Review

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936889  

13 June 2022 : Case report  Saudi Arabia

Atlantoaxial Subluxation Secondary to SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Rare Orthopedic Complication from COVID-19

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936128  

03 June 2022 : Case report  Japan

Clinical Outcomes of Sotrovimab Treatment in 10 High-Risk Patients with Mild COVID-19: A Case Series

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936832  

In Press

24 Jun 2022 : Case report  USA

A 24-Year-Old Man Presenting with Lung Metastases from a Primary Retroperitoneal Extragonadal Choriocarcinoma

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936288  

24 Jun 2022 : Case report  Romania

Odontogenic Keratocyst: The Dos and Don’ts in a Clinical Case Scenario

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936641  

24 Jun 2022 : Case report  Saudi Arabia

Management of Patients with Alagille Syndrome Undergoing Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Report of 2 ...

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936513  

22 Jun 2022 : Case report  USA

A Case of Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis in a Lymph Node with Unique Clinical and Histopathologic Features

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936862  

Most Viewed Current Articles

23 Feb 2022 : Case report  USA

Penile Necrosis Associated with Local Intravenous Injection of Cocaine

DOI :10.12659/AJCR.935250

Am J Case Rep 2022; 23:e935250

17 Feb 2022 : Case report  Oman

Myocarditis, Pulmonary Hemorrhage, and Extensive Myositis with Rhabdomyolysis 12 Days After First Dose of P...

DOI :10.12659/AJCR.934399

Am J Case Rep 2022; 23:e934399

06 Dec 2021 : Case report  Brazil

Lipedema Can Be Treated Non-Surgically: A Report of 5 Cases

DOI :10.12659/AJCR.934406

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e934406

09 Feb 2022 : Case report  Saudi Arabia

Extensive Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST) After the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA COV...

DOI :10.12659/AJCR.934744

Am J Case Rep 2022; 23:e934744

Your Privacy

We use cookies to ensure the functionality of our website, to personalize content and advertising, to provide social media features, and to analyze our traffic. If you allow us to do so, we also inform our social media, advertising and analysis partners about your use of our website, You can decise for yourself which categories you you want to deny or allow. Please note that based on your settings not all functionalities of the site are available. View our privacy policy.

American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923