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: Case report  USA

[In Press] Encephalitis with Extensive Cortical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Changes Secondary to Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody Disease

Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare disease

Vivek Satyasi1BEF, Gayatra Mainali2AEF, Jahnavi Chatterjee2EF, Sita Paudel2AEF

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI:   :: ID: 936361

Available online: , In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

BACKGROUND
The relatively new autoimmune disorder, anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) disease is particularly interesting because of its broad range of presentations. This entity’s appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain often makes identifying this disease a challenging process. Younger patients tend to present with an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis picture, with encephalopathy and multifocal neurological signs, while older patients are more likely to present with optic neuritis. We, however, report an atypical case of a patient who presented with encephalopathy, seizures, and significant cortical and subcortical gray matter involvement and was found to have anti-MOG positivity in serum.
CASE REPORT
A 17-month-old previously healthy boy presented to Emergency Department with fever, lethargy, vomiting, and left-sided weakness. Eventually, he required intubation due to a prolonged seizure. Continuous electroencephalogram captured several focal seizures, and MRI of the brain showed cortical and subcortical T2 hyperintensities. After extensive laboratory evaluation, he tested positive for anti-MOG antibody. He was empirically started on high-dose intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, followed by plasma exchange, given the poor response to the intravenous steroids. At the 5-month follow-up, the results of the neurological examination had dramatically improved, and MRI findings had largely resolved.
CONCLUSIONS
This case highlights the importance of suspecting anti-MOG antibody-mediated encephalitis, even while ruling out infectious etiologies, in children presenting with encephalopathy, seizures and MRI abnormalities. Prompt recognition would allow for less delay in treatment and hopefully improve prognosis.

Keywords: Encephalitis; Pediatrics; MOG Protein, Human; Epilepsy, Focal

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923