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: Case report  Switzerland

[In Press] Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction During Labor Due to Amniotic Fluid Embolism

Challenging differential diagnosis, Management of emergency care, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Charles R. Gieres1EF, Joachim Kohl2EF, Romedi Benz3EF, Simon F. Stämpfli1EF

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI:   :: ID: 936653

Available online: , In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an extremely rare, life-threatening complication of labor that leads to hyper-acute induction of inflammation and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Usually, acute pulmonary hypertension results in acute right ventricular failure, while DIC manifests by hemorrhagic and ischemic complications, ultimately leading to multi-organ failure and death.
CASE REPORT
A 30-year-old primigravida and primipara woman with no prior medical history was admitted for labor after intrauterine fetal death at 37 weeks of gestation. After medical birth induction, she had a convulsive seizure and cardiorespiratory arrest. Short mechanical resuscitation was performed before spontaneous circulation returned. Simultaneously occurring severe vaginal hemorrhage and an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) triggered the diagnosis of AFE. Laboratory results fulfilled the criteria for DIC, and hemostatic resuscitation and mechanical hemostasis were performed. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed hypokinesia to akinesia of the inferior wall. Owing to the ongoing DIC, coronary angiography could not be performed. After the patient’s transfer to the Intensive Care Unit, ST-segment elevations resolved and the myocardial infarct was managed medically. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 months later demonstrated myocardial scarring in 2 different areas. Referring to the coronary artery anatomy in a computed tomography scan of the chest, the infarcted areas correlated with 2 different coronary supply territories.
CONCLUSIONS
AFE should be considered in women with acute cardiorespiratory failure during labor. This is the first report of a STEMI triggered by an AFE. The 2 separate areas of infarction, corresponding to the 2 different coronary territories, suggest an AFE-related thrombotic/thromboembolic etiology.

Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndrome; Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation; Hemorrhage; Pregnancy; ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923