: Case report
Challenging differential diagnosis, Management of emergency care, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)Charles R. Gieres1EF, Joachim Kohl2EF, Romedi Benz3EF, Simon F. Stämpfli1EF
Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: :: ID: 936653
Available online: , In Press, Corrected Proof
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Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an extremely rare, life-threatening complication of labor that leads to hyper-acute induction of inflammation and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Usually, acute pulmonary hypertension results in acute right ventricular failure, while DIC manifests by hemorrhagic and ischemic complications, ultimately leading to multi-organ failure and death.
A 30-year-old primigravida and primipara woman with no prior medical history was admitted for labor after intrauterine fetal death at 37 weeks of gestation. After medical birth induction, she had a convulsive seizure and cardiorespiratory arrest. Short mechanical resuscitation was performed before spontaneous circulation returned. Simultaneously occurring severe vaginal hemorrhage and an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) triggered the diagnosis of AFE. Laboratory results fulfilled the criteria for DIC, and hemostatic resuscitation and mechanical hemostasis were performed. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed hypokinesia to akinesia of the inferior wall. Owing to the ongoing DIC, coronary angiography could not be performed. After the patient’s transfer to the Intensive Care Unit, ST-segment elevations resolved and the myocardial infarct was managed medically. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 months later demonstrated myocardial scarring in 2 different areas. Referring to the coronary artery anatomy in a computed tomography scan of the chest, the infarcted areas correlated with 2 different coronary supply territories.
AFE should be considered in women with acute cardiorespiratory failure during labor. This is the first report of a STEMI triggered by an AFE. The 2 separate areas of infarction, corresponding to the 2 different coronary territories, suggest an AFE-related thrombotic/thromboembolic etiology.
Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndrome; Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation; Hemorrhage; Pregnancy; ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
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