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13 September 2022 : Case report  USA

[In Press] Fatal Aerococcus urinae Aortic Valve Endocarditis with Severe Regurgitation

Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare disease

Olawole Akinboboye1ABCDEFG, Tundun O. Babalola1ABCDEFG, Kesiena Onoriode1ABCDFG, James Appiah-Pippim1EF

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.937596

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.937596  

Available online: 2022-09-13, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule


Aerococcus species are a rare cause of endocarditis. Micro-organism identification and antibiotic choice can pose significant management challenges to clinicians who care for patients with this infection. Aerococcus is a gram-positive micro-organism which is commonly misidentified because it shares many similarities with streptococcus and enterococcus species. Aerococcus urinae is usually found to cause urinary tract infections and occurs more frequently in patients with structural urinary tract abnormalities associated with urethral and ureteral obstruction such as kidney stones, phimosis, and prostate hyperplasia. However, it is reported to rarely cause endocarditis.
A 48-year-old man with a history of cocaine abuse and right hip replacement presented to our emergency department with acute encephalopathy. Through a complicated hospital course, he was found to be septic and the bacteria were initially misidentified as an alpha-hemolytic strep before being correctly identified as Aerococcus urinae. He was found to have multiple cerebral, likely septic, embolic infarcts and aortic valve endocarditis. Identification of the micro-organism on blood cultures was challenging, as were decisions about antibiotic choice. He died despite efforts of a multidisciplinary care team.
Our case highlights a unique case of Aerococcus endocarditis and shows the difficulty in initially identifying the bacteria. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in the setting of substance abuse. It also highlights the lack of appropriate guideline-directed therapy with regards to antibiotic choices in this group of patients, emphasizing the importance of further research in this regard.

Keywords: Aerococcus; Endocarditis


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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923