10 January 2023 : Case report
[In Press] Methanol Intoxication-Associated Brain Hemorrhages: Can Early Detection Be Life-Saving? A Case Report
Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis), Rare coexistence of disease or pathologyMegan E. Decker1EF, Nicholas D. Briski2EF, Amira Salem3E, Emad Noor2FG, Abdallah Khashan3EF
Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.938749
Available online: 2023-01-10, In Press, Corrected Proof
Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule
Methanol can cause many acute complications when ingested, either intentionally or accidentally. One rare complication is cerebral hemorrhage, which can present with focal neurologic deficits, decreased consciousness, and fixed, dilated pupils. With vigilant monitoring of patients in the acute period of toxicity, rapid identification, and initiation of treatment, outcomes can potentially be improved in these patients.
We present a case of a 42-year-old man who presented after ingestion of windshield wiper fluid. Initial symptoms started with fatigue and altered mental status, but he quickly developed abdominal pain and became obtunded. CT initially showed no acute hemorrhage or other pathology, but on day 2, despite receiving fomepizole, bicarbonate, and dialysis, the patient became hypotensive and showed loss of cranial nerve reflexes, and repeated CT head scans showed acute intracranial hemorrhage with mass effect.
Although the exact mechanism of intracranial hemorrhage and necrosis following methanol intoxication remains uncertain, we know beyond doubt that it can progress rapidly and lead to severe and irreversible complications, so identifying and treating it immediately is essential. In this case, methanol ingestion was known on presentation, antidote and renal replacement therapy were initiated within hours of ingestion, yet our patient still suffered fatal brain hemorrhage. Important warning signs of acute hemorrhage include loss of cranial nerve reflexes and decrease in consciousness, so these findings warrant further evaluation and prompt neuroimaging, especially in high-risk patients like the one in this report.
Keywords: Intracranial Hemorrhages; Poisoning
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