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13 January 2023 : Case report  Japan

[In Press] Mitral Valve Replacement for Enlarged Libman-Sacks Endocarditis in a Patient with Persistent Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Recurrent Stroke: A Case Report

Unusual setting of medical care, Rare coexistence of disease or pathology

Katsuya Takeuchi1BC, Tesseki Izumi1ABDEF, Hitoki Nanaura1B, Nanami Yamada1B, Yoshihiro Hayata2BD, Chiho Obayashi3BD, Kazuma Sugie1BD

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.938930

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.938930  

Available online: 2023-01-13, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis (LS) are indicative of comorbid antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and can result in cerebral infarctions. We describe a case of LS and primary APS with recurrent cerebral infarctions despite anticoagulation treatment. The patient underwent surgery for enlarged LS vegetation with high titers of antiphospholipid antibodies.
CASE REPORT
A 41-year-old Japanese man was admitted to hospital for small cerebral infarction recurrence in a left parietal lesion. At age 35, the patient had suffered multiple cerebral infarctions. He was found to have high serum titers of all 3 antiphospholipid antibodies. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) findings were normal. Differential diagnosis ruled out other autoimmune diseases and a clinical diagnosis of primary APS was made. Warfarin anticoagulation was started. When cerebral infarction recurred 6 years after the first episode, serum titers of antiphospholipid antibodies remained high, and TEE showed a 7×8 mm area of mitral vegetation. A TEE results from his first admission revealed a 5×6 mm area of mitral vegetation, which was believed to be related to the current vegetation. As anticoagulation produced no improvement, the mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical valve. Examination of the excised vegetation found it to be consistent with LS. The patient made good progress within 3 years after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS
LS size can increase despite anticoagulation in cases with high titers of all 3 antiphospholipid antibodies and cerebral infarction. Such patients require ongoing TEE follow-up and surgical treatment should be considered.

Keywords: Antiphospholipid Syndrome; Case Reports; Embolic Stroke; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Mitral Valve Insufficiency

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923