18 May 2023 : Case report
[In Press] A Rare Case of Aggressive Disseminated Nasal-Type Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma with Bone Marrow Involvement
Rare diseaseAaron C. Yee1ABCDEF, Frederic W. Karim1F, Shah M. Giashuddin12B, Gennadiy Grutman1A
Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.939286
Available online: 2023-05-18, In Press, Corrected Proof
Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule
Nasal-type extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) is an exceedingly rare and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The malignancy has both a high morbidity and mortality and is most commonly discovered in patients with advanced stages of the disease. As a result, early detection and treatment is tantamount to improving survival and minimizing lasting effects.
Herein, we report a case of nasal-type ENKL in a woman with facial pain and associated nasal and eye discharge. We highlight the histopathologic features from nasopharyngeal and bone marrow biopsy, which demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus-positive biomarkers of diffuse and subtle involvement, respectively, with associated chromogenic immunohistochemical staining. We also highlight existing therapy utilizing a combination of chemotherapy with radiation, as well as consolidation therapy, and suggest the need for further research of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell treatment and the potential of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibition in managing nasal-type ENKL malignancy.
Nasal-type ENKL is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is infrequently associated with bone marrow involvement. The malignancy has a poor prognosis overall and typically is discovered late in the disease course. Current treatment favors utilization of combined modality therapy. However, previous studies have been inconsistent in determining whether chemotherapy or radiation therapy can be used alone. Additionally, promising results have also been shown with chemokine modulators, including antagonistic drugs that target PD-L1, in refractory and advanced cases.
Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; Hodgkin Disease; Natural Killer T-Cells
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