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26 September 2023 : Case report  India

Successful Extracorporeal Cytokine Hemoadsorption in a Marfan Syndrome Patient with COVID-19 Undergoing Redo Bentall Procedure

Management of emergency care

Ajmer Singh1BCE, Chinmaya Nanda1BCE, Yatin Mehta2BE*, Anil Bhan3ADE

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.940383

Am J Case Rep 2023; 24:e940383

Abstract

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BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 undergoing emergency or complex surgical procedures are at increased risk of developing perioperative complications. CytoSorb is a blood purification therapy used to remove circulating cytokines in conditions of hyperinflammation. This report is of a patient with COVID-19 requiring redo replacement of the aortic valve and aorta due to aortic aneurysm of the ascending aorta (Bentall procedure) associated with Marfan syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with extracorporeal cytokine hemoadsorption.

CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old man with Marfan syndrome, who had undergone a Bentall procedure in 2018, was admitted with symptoms of worsening dyspnea, tachycardia, fever, and confirmed COVID-19. Further diagnostic workup revealed dehiscence of the aortic root as well as moderate aortic regurgitation, in the context of a hyperinflammatory state. Anti-infective treatment was initiated. Given the severity of symptoms, COVID-19, echocardiography findings, and risk of aortic rupture, urgent Bentall surgery was performed. Additionally, a CytoSorb hemoadsorber was integrated into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to attenuate the anticipated systemic hyperinflammation. Intraoperatively, several blood products were administered due to excessive bleeding from the friable tissues and the pre-existing anemia and thrombocytopenia. Treatment was associated with marked improvements in vital parameters and inflammatory markers, and weaning from the ventilator and inotropes was possible after 48 hours. The remaining time in hospital was uneventful.

CONCLUSIONS: This report supports the findings from recent studies and reports that extracorporeal cytokine hemoadsorption has a role to play in reducing the systemic effects of cytokine storm associated with complex surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass alongside severe infections, including COVID-19.

Keywords: Thoracic Surgery, COVID-19

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923