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29 January 2024 : Case report  Bahrain

[In Press] A Young Girl with Acute Encephalopathy Who Presented with Status Epilepticus Following a Flu-Like Illness

Challenging differential diagnosis, Management of emergency care, Rare disease

Noora Mohamed Saqr Aljalahma1E, Raafat Hammad Seroor Jadah1DE

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.942459

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.942459  

Available online: 2024-01-29, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule


Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a rare form of acute encephalopathy in children that is characterized by rapid and progressive deterioration in the patient’s clinical condition. Our aim in reporting the case is to highlight the importance of early diagnoses and aggressive early management of ANEC to achieve a better outcome. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl who presented with acute progressive encephalopathy with bilateral symmetrical thalamic involvement and brainstem lesion proceeded by a flu-like illness.
We report a 5-year-old girl who was previously healthy. She presented with rapid progressive encephalopathy and status epilepticus following a flu-like illness. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed significance symmetrical bilateral thalamic enhancement with brainstem lesions, which is consistent with the diagnosis of ANEC of childhood, and her initial electroencephalogram (EEG) showed severe encephalopathy. Despite extensive management of ANEC, the patient showed a poor prognosis.
ANEC is a rare, specific, devastating condition in the pediatric population. Early diagnosis and aggressive management should be initiated immediately to avoid the high mortality associated with the condition. Furthermore, to highlight the importance of the clear history of the patient who presented with rapid and progressive deterioration in the level of consciousness and status epilepticus proceeded by viral illness, a rapid neuroradiological images such as brain MRI should be obtained to confirm the diagnosis of this rare condition. We also seek to increase awareness of this disorder among healthcare workers and general practitioners.

Keywords: Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex; Brain Diseases; Methylprednisolone; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Plasma Exchange; Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In Press

18 Jan 2024 : Case report  Belgium

A Rare Case of Retroperitoneal Abscess Caused by Nephro-Colic Fistula Resulting from Staghorn Calculus

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.943206  


18 Jan 2024 : Case report  USA

A Case of Left-Sided Acute Appendicitis in a 45-Year-Old Man with Situs Inversus Totalis Managed by Emergen...

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.942323  


23 Jan 2024 : Case report  USA

Cloacal Dysgenesis Sequence in a Preterm Neonate

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.942203  


09 Feb 2024 : Case report  USA

A Case of Trauma-Related Angioedema of the Airway in a Patient on an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.943407  


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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923