05 February 2024 : Case report
[In Press] Low-Flow Type-D Bilateral Dural Carotid-Cavernous Fistula Diagnosed by 3-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography with Post-Treatment Follow-Up
Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare diseaseArturs Balodis 12ABCDEFG, Verners Roberts Kalējs 1ABCDEF, Kristīne Migunova3ABCDEF
Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.942833
Available online: 2024-02-05, In Press, Corrected Proof
Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule
Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is a rare, atypical vascular shunt between the carotid arterial system and the venous channels of the cavernous sinus, classified according to the shunt’s anatomy, by etiology (resulting from trauma or occurring spontaneously), or by hemodynamic characteristics (such as low- or high-flow fistulas).
A 62-year-old female patient with poorly controlled arterial hypertension presented with bilateral periorbital edema, conjunctival chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, diplopia, and diminished visual acuity. On magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), abnormal arterial flow along the cavernous sinuses was noted, suggestive of bilateral CCF. The diagnosis of indirect dural low-flow CCF (Barrow Type D) was later confirmed by digital subtraction angiography, with feeding arteries from intracavernous internal carotid artery branches, and meningeal branches of the external carotid artery, draining bilaterally to ophthalmic veins, the intracavernous sinus, and the inferior petrosal sinus. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular embolization. At 7-month follow-up, no residual arteriovenous shunting was detected. This case highlights the importance of non-invasive radiological methods for CCF, and presents rarely published radiological findings of bilateral Type-D dural CCFs on 3-dimensional time-of-flight MRA with post-treatment MRA follow-up.
Regardless of the patient’s history of possible trauma, a patient presenting with bilateral periorbital edema, conjunctival chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, diplopia, and diminished visual acuity should have a spontaneous bilateral CCF investigated to prevent delayed treatment. Experienced neuroradiologists are needed to accurately detect indirect CCF, since this condition often does not demonstrate classic symptoms.
Keywords: Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula; Cavernous Sinus; Magnetic Resonance Angiography; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Radiology, Interventional
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