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03 June 2024 : Case report  Thailand

Orbital Metastasis as the First Manifestation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Its Effective Treatment with Combined Dual Immunotherapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Unusual clinical course, Unusual setting of medical care

Jirapat Wonglhow ORCID logo1ABCDEF, Arunee Dechaphunkul1BE, Patrapim Sunpaweravong1BE, Chirawadee Sathitruangsak ORCID logo1BE, Suchaya Pajareeyaphan2BE, Panu Wetwittayakhlang ORCID logo3ACDEF*

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.944002

Am J Case Rep 2024; 25:e944002

Table 1. Review of the literature: 45 cases of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and orbital metastasis.

NumberAuthorYearSexAge (years)Cirrhosis etiologyKnown HCCTreatmentSurvival
1Lubin et al []35 1980M69AlcoholNoRTAlive
2Zubler et al []36 1981M64AlcoholNoRT3 months
3Wakisaka et al []37 1990M58NANoSurgery11 months
4Phanthumchinda and Hemachuda []38 1992F29NANoNot mentionedNot mentioned
5Tranfa et al []39 1994M85NANoNot mentionedNot mentioned
6Schwab et al []40 1994M19NANoBSC1 month
7Loo et al []41 1994F71HBVNoBSCLoss F/U after 3 months
8Font et al []42 1998F79HCVNoRTAlive at 3 years
9Scolyer et al []43 1999M78HCVYesNot mentionedNot mentioned
10Filippini et al []44 2000M71HBVNoBSC3 months
11Kim et al []45 2000F56HBVNoNot mentioned3 months
12Gupta et al []15 2005M45HBVNoBSCLoss of follow-up
13Oida et al []21 2006M72HCVYes (12 years)Surgery, TACE4 months
14Machado-Netto et al []46 2006M57HBVNoGemcitabine plus megestrol15 months
15Srinivasan and Krishnanand []3 2007F76NANoBSCNot mentioned
16Hirunwiwatkul et al []47 2008F74AlcoholNoBSC2 months
17Pitts et al []31 2008F61AlcoholNoRTDied
182008M47HBVNoBSC6 weeks
19Fonseca junior et al []48 2008M57HBVNoNot mentioned15 months
20Quick et al []4 2009M52HCVYes (1 month)RT, sorafenibAlive at 20 months
21Kolarevic et al []49 2011M70NANo5-FU6 months
22Mustapha and Madachi []50 2011M25HBVNoBSC5 weeks
23Guerriero et al []51 2011M45NAYes (12 months)Not mentionedNot mentioned
24Jiang et al []52 2012M44NAYes (18 months)RTNot mentioned
25Piccirillo et al []53 2013M66HBVyesNot mentionedNot mentioned
26Eldesouky et al []54 2014M62HCVYes (18 months)Not mentioned8–13 months
272014M70HCVNoNot mentioned
282014M55HCVYes (12 months)Not mentioned
292014M65HCVNoNot mentioned
302014M47HCVNoNot mentioned
312014M62HCVYes (14 months)Not mentionedAlive at 6 months
32Chen et al []32 2015M43HBVYes (5 months)SurgeryNot mentioned
33Tellez-Villajos et al []55 2015F70HCVYes (36 months)RTAlive at 4 months
34Geske et al []29 2017F56HCVNoRT1 months
352017M59HCVNoRT11 months
362017M63HCVYesSurgery8 months
37Kader et al []56 2018M60HBVYes (12 months)RT1 months
38Salem et al []57 2019M56HCVNoRTNot mentioned
39Sochat et al []33 2019M60HCVNoEmbolization, surgery, RT, sorafenibPD at 6 months, then regorafenib, nivolumab, alive
40Madabhavi et al []34 2020M72HBVNoSorafenibAlive at 7 months
41Protopapa et al []30 2020M53AlcoholNoRTNo
42Myint et al []14 2020M57NoNoBSCNo
43Baldovin et al []20 2021M62AlcoholYes (18 months)Surgery17 days
44Rana et al []12 2021M66HCVNoRT, sorafenibAlive with palliative care
45Mani et al []13 2023F54HCVYes (5 months)RT, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab6 months
F – Female; M – Male; HCV – hepatitis C virus; HBV – hepatitis B virus; NA – not available; RT – radiotherapy; BSC – best supportive care; TACE – transarterial chemoembolization.

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923