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15 June 2022 : Case report  USA

[In Press] A 77-Year-Old Man with Heparin-Induced Aldosterone Suppression Causing Hyperkalemia

Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Adverse events of drug therapy

Jonathan Kovacs1EF, Samer Talib1E, Abdallah Khashan1E, Bhaveshkumar Garsondiya1E, Michael P. Carson ORCID logo1E

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.937017

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.937017  

Available online: 2022-06-15, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Anticoagulation with heparin infrequently causes elevated serum potassium via a reduction in the number and affinity of adrenal angiotensin II receptors, causing reversible aldosterone suppression, thereby leading to enhanced sodium excretion and hyperkalemia.
CASE REPORT
A 77 year-old man presented with productive cough and shortness of breath and was subsequently found to have non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and concomitant symptomatic COVID-19 infection, for which he was started on a high-dose unfractionated heparin infusion. A gradual increase in serum potassium followed, with a subsequent return to a normal potassium level after stopping treatment with heparin. An evaluation for hemolysis was unrevealing, and the patient was not on any other medications known to cause hyperkalemia. On day 6, heparin was restarted owing to a high suspicion of pulmonary embolism. There was a subsequent increase in serum potassium level, which was followed by a return to baseline after discontinuation of heparin, thereby confirming the suspected diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS
Acute increases in serum potassium levels in hospitalized patients can result in weakness, paralysis, conduction abnormalities, and cardiac arrhythmias that, if left untreated, can result in serious morbidity and potentially death in a short period of time. As this clinical entity is infrequently encountered in clinical practice, it can easily be overlooked by clinicians. The prompt exclusion of alternative causes of acutely elevated serum potassium levels and the identification of heparin administration as an easily reversible trigger is imperative and can potentially be life-saving.

Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndrome; Aldosterone; Heparin; Hyperkalemia

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923