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15 June 2021: Articles

A Case of Rapid Transformation from Hydatidiform Mole to Invasive Mole: The Importance of β-hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) Serum Levels in Follow-Up Evaluation

Unusual setting of medical care, Rare disease, Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Ali Budi Harsono A , Yudi Mulyana Hidayat C , Gatot Nyarumenteng A. Winarno E* , Aisyah Shofiatun Nisa E , Firas Farisi Alkaff E

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.931156

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e931156

Table 2. Biomarkers that have been suggested to plays a role in the transformation from hydatidiform mole to invasive mole.

Name of biomarkerFunctionNormal placentaComplete Hydatidiform MoleInvasive MoleMolar Malignancies
p57KIP2 [,,]16 Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor in the G1/S phase cycleIncreasedDecreased/absentDecreased/absentAbsent
P53 tumor suppresor [,]17 Inhibiting the progression of the cell cycle in the G1→S phase/proapoptotic agentDecreasedIncreasedHigly increasedHigly increased
GTPase-activating proteins []18 Inhibiting the throphoblast proliferationHighly increasedIncreasedUnknownAbsent
protein c-erbB2 [,]19 Overexpression of the protein c-erb-B-2 was significantly more substantial in the complete hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma than in normal placenta and partial mole. This overexpression is due to the extravillous invasion of complete hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Overexpression of c-erb-B-2 may be associated with high proliferation and aggressive behavior of complete hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinomaDecreasedIncreasedHighly increasedHighly increased
Bcl-2 []20 Antiapoptotic agentHighly increasedDecreasedDecreasedAbsent
Bax []21 proapoptotic agentDecreased/absentIncreasedUnknownHighly increased
MMPs [,]22 Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a involved in the degradation of the protein matrix to allow trophoblastic invasion of maternal tissueDecreased/ absentIncreasedIncreasedHighly increased
TIMPs [,]22 Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have an ability to inhibit MMP activity related to tumor growth and metastasisIncreasedDecreasedDecreasedDecreased

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923