22 April 2020 : Case report
Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Management of emergency care, Rare disease, Congenital defects / diseases, Clinical situation which can not be reproduced for ethical reasons, Rare coexistence of disease or pathologyRenato Farina1ABCDE*, Francesco Aldo Iannace1BE, Pietro Valerio Foti1ABE, Andrea Conti1BE, Corrado Inì1BE, Federica Libra1BE, Luigi Fanzone1BE, Maria Enza Coronella1B, Serafino Santonocito1BEF, Antonio Basile1BE
Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e922715
BACKGROUND: Nutcracker syndrome and Wilkie’s syndrome are rare vascular diseases due to the abnormal course of the superior mesenteric artery originating from the abdominal aorta with reduced angle (<22°) and consequent compression of the left renal vein (nutcracker) and duodenum (Wilkie). Here, we report the case of a patient with a rare combination of these 2 syndromes and with unusual clinical manifestation of post-prandial pain.
CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a young male patient with rapid weight loss, coupled with post-prandial abdominal pain, with sub-acute onset, not associated with other symptoms. The ultrasound examination found an aorto-mesenteric angle of 18° and compression of the left renal vein and left varicocele. A CT study was performed to exclude oncological diseases and/or other pathologies responsible for the pain and weight loss, which confirmed the ultrasound findings and showed compression of the third part of the duodenum. The patient underwent endovascular treatment, with stent placement in the left renal vein, which resolved the vascular compression and of the duodenum, with regression of symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: The ultrasound scan promptly highlighted the reduction of the aorto-mesenteric angle and the signs of venous congestion of the left renal vein. Based on this experience, in patients with weight loss and post-prandial pain, in our opinion, diagnostic investigations should also be extended to the study of the aorto-mesenteric angle to confirm or exclude any vascular and/or duodenal compression.
Keywords: Mesenteric Artery, Superior, Renal Nutcracker Syndrome, Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color, Abdominal Pain, Comorbidity, Duodenum, endovascular procedures, Renal Veins
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