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17 June 2022 : Case report  Australia

[In Press] Isolated Anemia in a 69-Year-Old Man with HIV-1: Features of Pure Red Cell Aplasia Mediated by Chronic Parvovirus-B19 Infection

Rare disease

Jason Wylde1ABCDEF, Massimo A. Berneri1ABCDEF, Jacques A.J. Malherbe12BCDEF, Sue Davel12ABCDEF

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936445

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.936445  

Available online: 2022-06-17, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon syndrome characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and severe anemia. Among immunodeficient patients, including those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), persistent parvovirus-B19 can cause PRCA. We report a rare case of an Australian man with parvovirus-B19 mediated PRCA secondary to a new diagnosis of HIV-1/AIDS. The case highlights the importance of early treatment initiation with anti-retroviral drugs and pooled immunoglobulins to enable marrow recovery and long-term disease remission.
CASE REPORT
A 64-year-old man residing in rural Indonesia presented with severe anemia. Apart from 8 kg of unintentional weight loss, he denied any occult bleeding, diatheses, or constitutional symptoms. His bloodwork revealed a normocytic, normochromic anemia (Hb 81 g/L) with profound reticulocytopenia (9.5×10⁹/L). Parvovirus-B19 serology and polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed active viremia. Lymphopenia and an undetectable CD4 T-lymphocyte count (<1%) were also noted; HIV-1 was subsequently diagnosed. Bone marrow sampling later confirmed features consistent with parvovirus-B19-driven PRCA secondary to HIV-1/AIDS. The patient received 1 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin for two days and initiated anti-retroviral HIV therapy. Rapid reticulocytosis with slow incrementation of his hemoglobin were observed over one month. At three years following his diagnosis, he remains in remission.
CONCLUSIONS
Severe, isolated anemia in immunodeficient patients, particularly those with HIV-1/AIDS, should prompt consideration of parvovirus-B19-mediated PRCA. Depletion of CD4-T-lymphocyte populations enables the establishment of parvovirus-B19 reservoirs within erythroid progenitors, thereby hampering physiological erythropoiesis. Long-term remission can be achieved with the rapid institution of intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-retroviral HIV therapies.

Keywords: Anemia; HIV; Parvovirus; Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923