12 February 2024 : Case report
Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosisFilipa Marques Rodrigues1ABCDEF, Mariana Santos2BCDF, Ricardo Martins2DF
Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.942951
Available online: 2024-02-12, In Press, Corrected Proof
Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule
Primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an extremely aggressive brain disease that rarely affects immunocompetent non-elderly patients, particularly with hemorrhagic presentation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the diagnosis of this entity, which typically demonstrates restricted diffusion and a T2 hypointense appearance, suggesting hypercellularity.
A 44-year-old man came to the emergency department with a persistent and treatment-resistant bilateral frontal headache that had been bothering him for the past 3 weeks. Upon conducting a neurological assessment, the patient displayed temporal disorientation and incoherent speech, but without any observable motor deficits. A non-contrast enhanced brain computed tomography scan was carried out, revealing a hyperattenuating, space-occupying lesion and hemorrhage in the left hemisphere of the brain. Subsequently, brain MRI demonstrated hypointense signal on T2-weighted images, restricted diffusion, and homogeneous lesional contrast enhancement, suggesting a very cellular expansive lesion with hemorrhage. To establish a definitive diagnosis, a brain biopsy was undertaken, confirming the presence of DLBCL of the primary central nervous system (germinal center phenotype).
Hemorrhagic presentation of primary central nervous system DLBCL occurs very rarely, particularly in non-elderly immunocompetent patients. Brain MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis of this entity, which allows differentiation from high-grade glial or other lesions that present more frequently with hemorrhage. Therefore, it is crucial to suspect lymphoma before surgical intervention for appropriate patient management.
Keywords: Intracranial Hemorrhages; Lymphoma, B-Cell; Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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