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: Case report  Poland

[In Press] Salt-Losing Syndrome in a Girl with Type I and II Pseudohypoaldosteronism

Rare disease

Agnieszka Szmigielska1ABCDEF

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI:   :: ID: 937536

Available online: , In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) is characterized by renal tubular resistance to aldosterone and leads to hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. PHA is divided into 2 types: PHAI and PHAII. PHAI can be dominant (systemic disease) or recessive (renal form). PHAII causes hypertension with hyperkalemia and is recognized mostly in adults. PHA can be a life-threatening disease due to salt-wasting syndrome and severe hypovolemia.
CASE REPORT
We describe the case of a 2-month-old girl who was admitted to our hospital with hypovolemic shock due to salt-wasting syndrome. Laboratory tests revealed severe electrolyte abnormalities: hyponatremia (Na-116 mmol/L), hyperkalemia (K-10 mmol/L) and metabolic acidosis (pH-7.27; HCO3-12 mmol/L). Serum aldosterone was >100 ng/dL. Genetic analysis confirmed mutations in SCNN1A and CUL3 gene responsible for PHAI and PHAII. Supplementation with NaCl, pharmacological treatment of hyperkalemia, and restriction of potassium in the diet resulted in the normalization of serum electrolytes and proper future development.
CONCLUSIONS
Pseudohypoaldosteronism should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in children. Salt loss syndrome can lead to hypovolemic shock and, when unrecognized and untreated, to death of a child due to arrythmias and brain edema. The presence of 2 types of PHA in the same patient increases the risk of salt loss and at the same time significantly increases the risk of hypertension because of genetic predisposition and regular diet. Increased salt concentration in sweat and saliva may suggest pseudohypoaldosteronism.

Keywords: Aldosterone; Hyperkalemia; Hyponatremia; Pseudohypoaldosteronism; Shock

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923