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26 June 2024 : Case report  China (mainland)

Recurrent Hypoglycemia After Total Gastrectomy: A Case Report and Literature Analysis

Challenging differential diagnosis, Rare disease

Yue Zhang1CD, Haiyan Chen1AF, Zhe Wang2ABEF*

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.943144

Am J Case Rep 2024; 25:e943144

Abstract

0:00

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is a common complication following total gastrectomy, primarily caused by dumping syndrome and severe malnutrition, with late dumping syndrome being particularly significant. However, for recurrent fasting hypoglycemia, the possibility of insulinoma should be considered. Hypoglycemia caused by insulinoma can lead to severe consequences, including seizures and even death. Thus, it is crucial to differentially diagnose hypoglycemia occurring after total gastrectomy.

CASE REPORT: In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old Chinese woman who underwent total gastrectomy for gastric cancer and subsequently received chemotherapy. Four months after surgery, she began experiencing recurrent seizures, and multiple tests confirmed hypoglycemia. A series of laboratory and imaging examinations ultimately led to a diagnosis of insulinoma. After surgical resection of the tumor, the patient’s hypoglycemic symptoms resolved, and pathology results confirmed an insulinoma.

CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the rapid weight loss and severe hypoglycemia observed in a patient only 4 months after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Although dumping syndrome was initially suspected based on the clinical course, the final diagnosis turned out to be insulinoma. The case underscores the importance of comprehensive evaluation and appropriate diagnostic investigations for patients experiencing hypoglycemia after total gastrectomy. Furthermore, the case suggests that the increased levels of enteroglucagon following changes in the gastrointestinal tract resulting from total gastrectomy may promote the development of insulinomas. This case report also contributes to the existing literature regarding atypical presentations of insulinomas and their association with gastric resection.

Keywords: Gastrectomy, Hypoglycemia, Insulinoma

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923