: Case report
Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Adverse events of drug therapy , Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)Yuichiro Haba1ABCDEF, Hikaru Akizuki2ABCDEF, Naoyuki Hashiguchi2ADEF, Toshio Naito 1ADEF
Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI: :: ID: 936712
Available online: , In Press, Corrected Proof
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Cefmetazole (CMZ), containing an N-methyl-tetrazole-thiol (NMTT) side chain, is a therapeutic option for diverticulitis in Japan. Cephems containing an NMTT, a methyl-thiadiazol, and a thiadiazolethiol side chain are known to induce coagulation disorders.
A 76-year-old woman developed hypoprothrombinemia after receiving oral levofloxacin (LVFX) 250 mg q24h for 2 days followed by intravenous CMZ 2 g q8h for sigmoid diverticulitis. On day 5 of CMZ administration (after 12 doses in total), black stool was observed. On the following day (after 14 doses), prothrombin time (PT) prolongation was noted; PT and international normalized ratio (INR) were 37.1 s and 2.47, respectively. We diagnosed the patient with hypoprothrombinemia because of vitamin K deficiency caused by markedly elevated protein levels induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II on day 6 of CMZ administration. Intravenous vitamin K administration and CMZ cessation rapidly restored PT and led to the disappearance of black stool.
The causes of vitamin K deficiency were considered to be an impaired vitamin K cycle due to CMZ and decreased vitamin K intake because of malnutrition. These findings are consistent with CMZ’s reported adverse effects. Decreased vitamin K production due to alterations in the gut bacterial flora by LVFX and CMZ was also postulated as a cause. If a bleeding tendency is noted during diverticulitis treatment with NMTT-containing cephems, switching to intravenous quinolones or carbapenems is recommended. It remains unclear how this reaction can be avoided; however, prudent monitoring of bleeding signs and PT-INR is recommended.
Keywords: Cefmetazole; Hypoprothrombinemias; Malnutrition; Vitamin K
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