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: Case report  Japan

[In Press] Hypoprothrombinemia During Cefmetazole Treatment: A Case Report

Unusual clinical course, Challenging differential diagnosis, Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment, Diagnostic / therapeutic accidents, Adverse events of drug therapy , Educational Purpose (only if useful for a systematic review or synthesis)

Yuichiro Haba1ABCDEF, Hikaru Akizuki2ABCDEF, Naoyuki Hashiguchi2ADEF, Toshio Naito ORCID logo1ADEF

Am J Case Rep In Press; DOI:   :: ID: 936712

Available online: , In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Cefmetazole (CMZ), containing an N-methyl-tetrazole-thiol (NMTT) side chain, is a therapeutic option for diverticulitis in Japan. Cephems containing an NMTT, a methyl-thiadiazol, and a thiadiazolethiol side chain are known to induce coagulation disorders.
CASE REPORT
A 76-year-old woman developed hypoprothrombinemia after receiving oral levofloxacin (LVFX) 250 mg q24h for 2 days followed by intravenous CMZ 2 g q8h for sigmoid diverticulitis. On day 5 of CMZ administration (after 12 doses in total), black stool was observed. On the following day (after 14 doses), prothrombin time (PT) prolongation was noted; PT and international normalized ratio (INR) were 37.1 s and 2.47, respectively. We diagnosed the patient with hypoprothrombinemia because of vitamin K deficiency caused by markedly elevated protein levels induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II on day 6 of CMZ administration. Intravenous vitamin K administration and CMZ cessation rapidly restored PT and led to the disappearance of black stool.
CONCLUSIONS
The causes of vitamin K deficiency were considered to be an impaired vitamin K cycle due to CMZ and decreased vitamin K intake because of malnutrition. These findings are consistent with CMZ’s reported adverse effects. Decreased vitamin K production due to alterations in the gut bacterial flora by LVFX and CMZ was also postulated as a cause. If a bleeding tendency is noted during diverticulitis treatment with NMTT-containing cephems, switching to intravenous quinolones or carbapenems is recommended. It remains unclear how this reaction can be avoided; however, prudent monitoring of bleeding signs and PT-INR is recommended.

Keywords: Cefmetazole; Hypoprothrombinemias; Malnutrition; Vitamin K

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American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923
American Journal of Case Reports eISSN: 1941-5923